In this part we are going to take a look at the qualities and peculiarities of our first category, ”things that can be seen by the eye”, to produce an outline and understanding of matter. With this we begin a subject which will take lengthy explanation, It is the first part of our thought process of the properties of matter from a physical point of view, hoping to achieve understanding to help us reach a conclusion at a later stage of what ”everything” is.
What is matter? We recognize that matter is physical substance in general, that which occupies space and possesses mass, that is made out of a great many atoms, of which the atoms fundamental components are held together by a strong nuclear force. For now, we will consider matter in an object form rather than the complexity of invisible gaseous forms, this will make it easier at this stage to understand the fundamental characteristics of matter.
Presently it is suggested that all matter has mass and that all mass is attracted to mass. Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses. The Cavendish experiment, performed in 1797–98 by British scientist Henry Cavendish, was the first experiment to measure the force of gravity between masses and the first to give accurate values for the gravitational constant. Cavendish constructed a torsion balance apparatus that consisted of the use of different size lead balls, an apparatus for measuring very weak forces that in the experiment produced positive results and was able to determine the force between the pairs of masses. The torsion balance apparatus design is also well known for it’s uses by Coulomb to measure the electrostatic force between charges to establish Coulomb’s law.